Support
Three originally separate floor slabs; h. 92 ×  w. 229 ×  d. 8 cm h. 99 ×  w. 320 ×  d. 5 cm h. 89 ×  w. 82 ×  d. 5 cm.
Text
Middle Indo-Aryan, Southern Brāhmī script.
The opening word sidhaṁ stands in the margin. h. 47 ×  w. 600 cm.
Date
Fourteenth regnal year of a king Māṭharīputta, presumably Siri-Vīrapurisadatta, i.e., approximately between 225 and 275 CE.
Origin
Placed originally at findspot.
Provenance
Discovered between March 1926 and October 1927 at Nagarjunakonda, Site 43, forming the floor of the Apsidal shrine no. II, on the mound Nāharāḷḷabōḍu. Three fragments identified at Nagarjunakonda Museum (A = acc. no. 543; B = acc. no. 552, C = acc. no. 564) in February 2016.
Visual Documentation
Photo(s) of estampage(s):
  • estampage Leiden N10 (two separate sheets).
  • Est. ASI: Vogel
  • Raghunath
  • Editors
    Arlo Griffiths and Vincent Tournier, with contributions by Stefan Baums and Ingo Strauch.
    Publication history
    First described and edited by Vogel 1929–30a: 14, 22-3 (F) . Edited again, from the EI estampage, by Sircar 1942: 224–7 and Sircar 1965: 233–6 . Re-edited here from the Leiden estampage and after autopsy of the stone.
    sidhaṁ (1) namo bhagavato °ikhākurājapavararisisatapabhavavaṁsasaṁbhavasa devamanusasavasatahitasukhamagadesikasa jitakāmakodhabhayaharisatarisamohadosasadapitamārabaladapamānapasamanakarasa dasabalamah⟨ā⟩balasa °aṭhagamagadhamacakapavatakasa cakalakhaṇasukumārasujātacaraṇasa taruṇadivasakarapabhasa saradasasisomadarisanasa savalokacitamahitasa budhasa raṁño m[āṭha]ri[p]u[tasa] + + + + ? 10 4 hemaṁtapakhaṁ chaṭhaṁ 6 divasaṁ teraṁ 10 3 (°a) [caṁ]tarājācarīyānaṁ kasmīragaṁdhāracīnacilātatosalī°avaraṁtaveṁgavanavāsīya[vanada] (m)i[lapa]lurataṁbapaṁṇidīpapas[ā]dakānaṁ theriyānaṁ taṁbapa[]ṇakānaṁ suparigahe (2) siripavate vijayapurīya puvadisābhāge vihāre culadhaṁmagirīyaṁ cetiyagharaṁ sapaṭasaṁtharaṁ sacetīyaṁ savaniyutaṁ kāritaṁ °uvāsikāya bodhisiriya °apano bhatuno budhiṁnakasa pituno ca se govagāmavathavasa revatagahapatisa mātuya ca sa budhaṁnikāya bhātunaṁ ca se caṁdamukhanasa karuṁbudhinasa haṁghaṁnasa bhaginīya ca revatiṁnikāya bhātuputānaṁ ca mahācaṁdamukhaculacaṁdamukhānaṁ bhāgineyānaṁ ca mahāmūlaculamūlānaṁ °apano ca °ayakasa mūlavāniyasa °ayikāya budhavān[i]k[i][nāya] mātulaka[sa] (ca) koṭhakārikasa bhadesa bodhisaṁmasa caṁda[sa] bodhikasa mahāmātukāya bha .i + [l]āya bodhiya ca °apano pituno budhi()niyasa m[ātuya] ? ? (3) bhātuno mūlasa bhaginīnaṁ budhaṁnikāya mūlaṁnikāya nāgabodhinikāya ca dhūtuya vīraṁnikāya putānaṁ nāgaṁnasa vīraṁnasa ca suṁnhānaṁ ca bhadasirimisīnaṁ °evām eva ca kulahavihāre cetiyagharaṁ sīhaḷavihāre bodhirukhapāsādā mahādhaṁmagirīyaṁ °ovarako 1 mahāvi⟨⟩re maṁḍavakhaṁbho devagiriyaṁ padhānasālā puvasele taḷākaṁ °aḷaṁdāmaḍavo ca kaṁṭakasole mahācetiyasa puvadāre selamaṁḍavo hirumuṭhuve °ovarakā tiṁṇi 3 papilāyaṁ °ovarakā sata 7 puphagirīya selamaṁḍavo dhaṁ ? + + + + + + + vihāre selamaḍavo °etaṁ ca savaṁ °uvarivaṁṇ[i] (taṁ) ( ) ()dh[u]vagasa °acaṁ[ta]hitasu[khā]ya thavitaṁ sava[sa] ca lokasa °imaṁ navakaṁmaṁ tiṁhi navaka[]mikehi kāritaṁ caṁdamukhaṭherena ca (4) dhaṁmanaṁditherena ca nāgatherena ca selavaḍhākisa vidhikasa kaṁmaṁ ti
    sidhaṁ
    (1) namo bhagavato °ikhākurājapavararisisatapabhavavaṁsasaṁbhavasa devamanusasavasatahitasukhamagadesikasa jitakāmakodhabhayaharisatarisamohadosasadapitamārabaladapamānapasamanakarasa dasabalamah⟨ā⟩balasa °aṭhagamagadhamacakapavatakasa cakalakhaṇasukumārasujātacaraṇasa taruṇadivasakarapabhasa saradasasisomadarisanasa savalokacitamahitasa budhasa raṁño m[āṭha]ri[p]u[tasa] + + + + ? 10 4 hemaṁtapakhaṁ chaṭhaṁ 6 divasaṁ teraṁ 10 3 (°a) [caṁ]tarājācarīyānaṁ kasmīragaṁdhāracīnacilātatosalī°avaraṁtaveṁgavanavāsīya[vanada] (m)i[lapa]lurataṁbapaṁṇidīpapas[ā]dakānaṁ theriyānaṁ taṁbapa[]ṇakānaṁ suparigahe
    (2) siripavate vijayapurīya puvadisābhāge vihāre culadhaṁmagirīyaṁ cetiyagharaṁ sapaṭasaṁtharaṁ sacetīyaṁ savaniyutaṁ kāritaṁ °uvāsikāya bodhisiriya °apano bhatuno budhiṁnakasa pituno ca se govagāmavathavasa revatagahapatisa mātuya ca sa budhaṁnikāya bhātunaṁ ca se caṁdamukhanasa karuṁbudhinasa haṁghaṁnasa bhaginīya ca revatiṁnikāya bhātuputānaṁ ca mahācaṁdamukhaculacaṁdamukhānaṁ bhāgineyānaṁ ca mahāmūlaculamūlānaṁ °apano ca °ayakasa mūlavāniyasa °ayikāya budhavān[i]k[i][nāya] mātulaka[sa] (ca) koṭhakārikasa bhadesa bodhisaṁmasa caṁda[sa] bodhikasa mahāmātukāya bha .i + [l]āya bodhiya ca °apano pituno budhi()niyasa m[ātuya] ? ?
    (3) bhātuno mūlasa bhaginīnaṁ budhaṁnikāya mūlaṁnikāya nāgabodhinikāya ca dhūtuya vīraṁnikāya putānaṁ nāgaṁnasa vīraṁnasa ca suṁnhānaṁ ca bhadasirimisīnaṁ °evām eva ca kulahavihāre cetiyagharaṁ sīhaḷavihāre bodhirukhapāsādā mahādhaṁmagirīyaṁ °ovarako 1 mahāvi⟨⟩re maṁḍavakhaṁbho devagiriyaṁ padhānasālā puvasele taḷākaṁ °aḷaṁdāmaḍavo ca kaṁṭakasole mahācetiyasa puvadāre selamaṁḍavo hirumuṭhuve °ovarakā tiṁṇi 3 papilāyaṁ °ovarakā sata 7 puphagirīya selamaṁḍavo dhaṁ ? + + + + + + + vihāre selamaḍavo °etaṁ ca savaṁ °uvarivaṁṇ[i] (taṁ) ( ) ()dh[u]vagasa °acaṁ[ta]hitasu[khā]ya thavitaṁ sava[sa] ca lokasa °imaṁ navakaṁmaṁ tiṁhi navaka[]mikehi kāritaṁ caṁdamukhaṭherena ca
    (4) dhaṁmanaṁditherena ca nāgatherena ca selavaḍhākisa vidhikasa kaṁmaṁ ti
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    					          <num xml:id="tok1215" value="3">3</num>
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    					          <w xml:id="tok1217">papilāyaṁ</w>
    					          <space type="horizontal" quantity="1" unit="character"/>
    					          <w xml:id="tok1219">°ovarakā</w>
    					          <w xml:id="tok1220">sata</w>
    					          <num xml:id="tok1221" value="7">7</num>
    					          <space type="horizontal" quantity="1" unit="character"/>
    					          <w xml:id="tok1223">puphagirīya</w>
    					          <space type="horizontal" quantity="1" unit="character"/>
    					          <w xml:id="tok1225">selamaṁḍavo</w>
    					          <space type="horizontal" quantity="1" unit="character"/>
    					          <w xml:id="tok1227">dhaṁ</w>
    					          <gap reason="illegible" quantity="1" unit="character"/>
    					          <gap reason="lost" quantity="7" unit="character"/>
    					          <w xml:id="tok1235">vihāre</w>
    					          <space type="horizontal" quantity="1" unit="character"/>
    					          <w xml:id="tok1237">selamaḍavo</w>
    					          <space type="horizontal" quantity="1" unit="character"/>
    					          <w xml:id="tok1239">°etaṁ</w>
    					          <w xml:id="tok1240">ca</w>
    					          <space type="horizontal" quantity="1" unit="character"/>
    					          <w xml:id="tok1242">savaṁ</w>
    					          <space type="horizontal" quantity="1" unit="character"/>
    					          <w xml:id="tok1244">°uvarivaṁṇ<unclear>i</unclear><supplied reason="lost">taṁ</supplied>
                   </w>
    					          <supplied reason="lost">
                      <space type="horizontal" quantity="1" unit="character"/>
                   </supplied>
    					          <w xml:id="tok1247">
                      <supplied reason="lost">sā</supplied>dh<unclear>u</unclear>vagasa</w>
    					          <space type="horizontal" quantity="1" unit="character"/>
    					          <w xml:id="tok1250">°acaṁ<unclear>ta</unclear>hitasu<unclear>khā</unclear>ya</w>
    					          <space type="horizontal" quantity="1" unit="character"/>
    					          <w xml:id="tok1252">thavitaṁ</w>
    					          <space type="horizontal" quantity="1" unit="character"/>
    					          <w xml:id="tok1254">sava<unclear>sa</unclear>
    					          </w>
    					          <space type="horizontal" quantity="1" unit="character"/>
    					          <w xml:id="tok1256">ca</w>
    					          <space type="horizontal" quantity="1" unit="character"/>
    					          <w xml:id="tok1258">lokasa</w>
    					          <space type="horizontal" quantity="1" unit="character"/>
    					          <w xml:id="tok1260">°imaṁ</w>
    					          <w xml:id="tok1261">navakaṁmaṁ</w>
    					          <w xml:id="tok1262">tiṁhi</w>
    					          <w xml:id="tok1263">navaka<unclear>ṁ</unclear>mikehi</w>
    					          <w xml:id="tok1264">kāritaṁ</w>
    					          <space type="horizontal" quantity="1" unit="character"/>
    					          <w xml:id="tok1266">caṁdamukhaṭherena</w>
    					          <w xml:id="tok1267">ca</w>
    					          <lb n="4"/>
    					          <w xml:id="tok1268">dhaṁmanaṁditherena</w>
    					          <w xml:id="tok1269">ca</w>
    					          <w xml:id="tok1270">nāgatherena</w>
    					          <w xml:id="tok1271">ca</w>
    					          <w xml:id="tok1272">selavaḍhākisa</w>
    					          <w xml:id="tok1273">vidhikasa</w>
    					          <w xml:id="tok1274">kaṁmaṁ</w>
    					          <w xml:id="tok1275">ti</w>
    					          <pc>—</pc>
    				        </ab>
    • (1) -sadapita- Vogel suggests emending sadāpita. The editor of the EI volume containing Vogel’s publication, Hirananda Sastri, accepts the reading as is, but suggests to divide the expression as two compounds: -mohadosasa dapitamāra- ( Vogel 1929–30a: 22 n. 1 ). The placement of the punctuation space does not support this otherwise attractive suggestion, and we believe we can make sense of sadapita as it is, corresponding to Skt. saṁdarpita.
    • (1) Possible restorations are here saṁvachare or vase cudase. Vogel remarks: The akshara ṭha of Māṭhariputasa is partly preserved. After this word some five or six aksharas are lost. In the absence of any traces of i strokes, the missing word cannot have been Siri-Purisadatasa. In all probability it was saṁvacharaṁ, followed by a word expressing “fourteenth” (chodaṁ ?) ( Vogel 1929–30a: 22 n. 2 ).
    • (1) teraṁ Emend terasaṁ.
    • (1) (°a) [caṁ]tarājācarīyānaṁ . . .ta []jācarīyānaṁ JPhV . Vogel 1929–30a: 22 n. 3 notes: Perhaps bhadaṁta-rāj-ācariyānaṁ ?. In his edition of EIAD 69, an inscription also recovered from site 43 and bearing the same toponym, Sircar found the compound °acaṁtarājācariyānaṁ, whose meaning was obscure to him. He tentatively suggested the expression achaṁtarāj-āchariya would mean ‘teachers of (or from) Achaṁtarāja’ or better ‘teachers of the Achaṁtarāja school or community’. Unfortunately we do not know of any king or locality called Achaṁtarāja or a community of Buddhist teachers characterised by that name ( Sircar 1961-62b: 212 ). Our restitution depends on the comparison with EIAD 69 and the probable re-occurence of the keyword °acaṁta towards the end of line 3.
    • (1) kasmīra- kasmira- JPhV .
    • (1) -tosalī- -tosali- JPhV .
    • (1) -veṁgavanavāsī- -vaṁgavanavāsi- JPhV . We adopt Vogel’s silent emendation.
    • (1) -ya[vanada] (m)i[lapa]lura- yavanada[milapa]lura- JPhV . Vogel notes: The words which I read Yavana-Damila-Palura are not quite certain. The Da of Damila is still legible and the long-drawn top strokes of the remaining two aksharas have led me to the conjectural reading mila, the body of the akshara m being partly preserved. The Pa of Palura is conjectural ( Vogel 1929–30a: 22 n. 4 ).
    • (2) vijayapurīya vijapuriya- JPhV .
    • (2) haṁghaṁnasa haghaṁnasa JPhV .
    • (2) °ayikāya °ayīkāya JPhV .
    • (2) bhadesa bhadasa JPhV . Emend in accordance with Vogel's reading.
    • (2) mātulaka[sa] Vogel notes: The akshara sa of mātulakasa is conjectural. As the word is followed by several personal names in the genitive case, one would expect mātulakānaṁ, but the akshara ka shows no trace of an ā-stroke ( Vogel 1929–30a: 22 n. 5 ).
    • (2) koṭhakārikasa koṭh(ā)kārikasa JPhV .
    • (2) bha.i + [l]āya bhadi[]ya JPhV .
    • (2) m[ātuya] ? ? Since the slab has peeled off at the end of the line, and since the length of lines vary in this inscription, it is difficult to determine how many akṣaras are missing here, and we can only estimate.
    • (3) °evām °evam JPhV . Emend in accordance with Vogel's reading.
    • (3) bodhirukhapāsādā bodhirukhapāsādo JPhV . Emend in accordance with Vogel's silent emendation.
    • (3) °aḷaṁdāmaḍavo °aḷaṁdāma⟨⟩ḍavo JPhV .
    • (3) kaṁṭakasole kaṁṭakasele JPhV .
    • (3) puphagirīya puphagirīya() JPhV .
    • (3) selamaḍavo selama()ḍavo JPhV .
    • (3) °uvarivaṁṇ[i] (taṁ) ( ) ()dh[u] °uvarivaṁṇi(taṁ….sā)dhu JPhV . Vogel notes: The akshara taṁ is conjectural. Perhaps tasa ( Vogel 1929–30a: 22 n. 8 ); and The first akshara has been restored tentatively. The u-stroke of dhu is still faintly visible ( Vogel 1929–30a: 22 n. 9 ). We assume instead that a punctuation space was left blank between the two words.
    • (3) -ṭherena -therena JPhV . It is tempting to emend here -therena, but note that a retroflex <ṭha> for <tha>seg> is encountered earlier in hirumuṭhuve earlier in this line.
    (1)Success! Homage to the Bhagavant, born in the lineage that descended from the hundreds of excellent sages [stemming from] king Ikṣvāku, who explains the path of well-being and happiness to gods, men and all beings, who has conquered desire, anger, fear, joy, thirst, hatred and delusion and who has calmed the haughtiness and pride of Māra’s haughty forces, who has the great power of the ten powers, who sets in motion the Dharma wheel of the eight-limbed path, whose soft and well-formed feet have the sign of the wheel, who has the shine of the young sun, who is pleasant to see as the autumn moon, who is praised and celebrated by all people, the Buddha.
    (1-3)(Fourteenth) — 14th — year of King Māṭharīputta, sixth — 6th — fortnight of winter, thirteenth — 13th — day. In the firm possession of those who are supreme teachers of kings, who brought the faith to Kasmīra-Gandhāra, Cīna-Cilāta; to Tosalī and Avaranta; to Vaṁga, Vanavāsi, [the country of the] the Yavanas, the Damilas, the Paluras and to the island of Tambapaṇṇī; the Theriyas, Tambapaṇṇakas, in the monastery on Siripavata, on the eastern side of Vijayapurī, on Small Dharma Hill, a shrine hall (cetiyaghara) with a flooring of slabs, with a shrine and equipped with everything, was caused to be built by the lay follower Bodhisirī (for the sake of) her own husband Budhinnaka; and his father the notable (gahapati) Revata, a resident of the village Gova; and his mother Budhannikā; and his brothers Candamukhanna, Karumbudhinna and Haṅghanna; and (his) sister Revatinnikā; and his brothers’ sons Big Candamukha and Little Candamukha; and his sister’s sons Big Mūla and Little Mūla; as well as her own paternal grandfather Mūlavāniya, (her) maternal grandmother Budhavānikinā; and (her) maternal uncle the treasurer Bhada; and Bodhisamma, Canda, Bodhika; (her) mahāmātukā ... and Bodhi; her own father Budhivāniya; (her) mother ...; (her) brother Mūla; (her) sisters Budhannikā, Mūlannikā and Nāgabodhinnikā; (her) daughter Vīrannikā; (her) sons Nāganna and Vīranna; and her daughters-in-law Bhadasirī and Misī. And in just the same way, in Kulaha Monastery a shrine hall; in Sīhaḷa Monastery a bodhi-tree temple; at Big Dharma Hill 1 cell; at the Great Monastery a pavillion pillar; at Deva Mountain a hall of spiritual exertion; at the Eastern Mountain a pond and a terrace and hall; at Kaṇṭakasola, at the eastern gate of the Great Shrine, a stone pavillion; at Hirumuṭhuva three — 3 — cells; at Papilā seven — 7 — cells; at Flower Hill a stone pavillion; at ... Monastery a stone pavillion. And all this described above has been erected for the supreme well-being and happiness of the group of good people and of the whole world.
    (3-4)This construction was caused to be made by three superintendents of construction: Elder Candamukha, Elder Dhammanandi and Elder Nāga. It is the work of the stonemason Vidhika.
    • (1) savalokacitamahitasa The compound savalokacitamahita- is ambiguous. We tentatively take it as corresponding to Skt. sarvalokārcitamahita. It is however also possible to interpret it as Vogel did, corresponding to Skt. sarvalokacittamahita, and meaning “who is magnified by the thoughts of all the world”.
    • (1) (°a) [caṁ]tarājācarīyānaṁ ... taṁbapa[]ṇakānaṁ For a lengthy discussion of this series of titles, see Tournier forthcoming: 55–63 .
    • (4) vidhikasa The same proper name is found in EIAD 85 and 86. See Sarkar 1968-71 .